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- Glossary: Ozone.
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One atom of chlorine can destroy more than , ozone molecules, according to the U. Environmental Protection Agency, eradicating ozone much more quickly than it can be replaced.
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The "hole" is actually an area of the stratosphere with extremely low concentrations of ozone that reoccurs every year at the beginning of the Southern Hemisphere spring August to October. Spring brings sunlight, which releases chlorine into the stratospheric clouds. Aerosol from cans sometimes contains ozone-depleting substances called chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs.
Recognition of the harmful effects of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances led to the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer in , a landmark agreement to phase out those substances that has been ratified by all UN member countries. Without the pact, the U.
More than 30 years after the Montreal Protocol, NASA scientists documented the first direct proof that Antarctic ozone is recovering because of the CFC phase-down: Ozone depletion in the region has declined 20 percent since And at the end of , the United Nations confirmed in a scientific assessment that the ozone layer is recovering, projecting that it would heal completely in the non-polar Northern Hemisphere by the s, followed by the Southern Hemisphere in the s and polar regions by A study in early found that ozone in the lower stratosphere unexpectedly and inexplicably has dropped since , while another pointed to possible ongoing violations of the Montreal pact.
The world is not yet in the clear when it comes to harmful gases from coolants. Some hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFCs , transitional substitutes that are less damaging but still harmful to ozone, are still in use.
Developing countries need funding from the Montreal Protocol's Multilateral Fund to eliminate the most widely used of these, the refrigerant R The next generation of coolants, hydrofluorocarbons HFCs , do not deplete ozone, but they are powerful greenhouse gases that trap heat, contributing to climate change. Though HFCs represent a small fraction of emissions compared with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases , their planet-warming effect prompted an addition to the Montreal Protocol, the Kigali Amendment , in The amendment, which came into force in January , aims to slash the use of HFCs by more than 80 percent over the next three decades.
In the meantime, companies and scientists are working on climate-friendly alternatives, including new coolants and technologies that reduce or eliminate dependence on chemicals. Because ozone is made of oxygen and reverts to pure oxygen , it vanishes without trace once it has been used. Compare this with other disinfectants.
Ozone and the ozone layer Australia
When ozone disinfects or breaks down harmful bacteria or pollutants, there are generally no by-products, unlike most disinfecting agents. For further information about ozone click on Ozone data.
Please choose any of the left links for application data and specific ozone technologies. Pacific Air cooled Ozone Generators. Water cooled Ozone Generators.
Ozone generators for Air purification. Ozone injection equipment.